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Dual Language & Immersion Program
Dual Language/Immersion (DL/I) Programs
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The focus of dual language/immersion programs is to help students become proficient in a target language, in addition to English. These students master subject content from other disciplines, using the target language or both languages.
All students develop high levels of proficiency in the target language and English.
Academic performance of students is at or above grade level.
Students demonstrate positive cross-cultural attitudes and behaviors.
The first DL/I program was launched in North Carolina in the 1990-91 school year. By 2005, there were 7 schools with dual language/immersion programs. Currently, there are over 120 programs and that number is growing.
The 2016-2017 list of Dual Language/Immersion programs in North Carolina are provided for download in two different ways:
(including public, charter, and independent schools)
(Cherokee, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Japanese, Spanish)
For additional details about each DL/I program, including contact information for district administrators and principals, please see the
NC Dual Language/Immersion Program Directory
4 different models of dual language/immersion programs exist in North Carolina for students to become bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural.
Models are defined by the population of students being served.
(See below as summarized from
Languages & Children
: Making the Match by Helena
Curtain and Carol Ann Dahlberg)
Specific programs vary on how instructional time is scheduled between the target language and English, which is described in terms like 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50.
Student outcomes or levels of proficiency expected in the target language upon completion of the programs, K - 12, are outlined in the
North Carolina World Language Essential Standards
For students in DL/I programs who are designated as Limited English Proficient (LEP):
Both the district's Language Instruction Educational Program (LIEP) plan and the
North Carolina - WIDA English Language Development Standards
The DL/I program itself does not supplant the LIEP services provided to English Learners (ELs).
Developmental Bilingual Model
Designed to help non-English speakers learn English, as well as to maintain and improve their native or heritage language skills. Content is delivered in English and in the heritage language.
For more information about Developmental Bilingual programs in North Carolina, including a list of DL/I programs using this model by district, charter, or independent and links to school websites, go to the Developmental Bilingual Programs page at
Full Immersion Model
Primarily serve native speakers of English in an environment where the target language is used exclusively. Content is delivered in the target language. English Language Arts is typically introduced around grade 2.
For more information about Full Immersion programs in North Carolina, including a list of DL/I programs using this model by district, charter, or independent and links to school websites, go to the Full Immersion Programs page at
Partial Immersion Model
Primarily serve native speakers of English in an environment where the target language is used for some portion of the day. Partial immersion programs are also often used at the secondary level for immersion continuation offerings for students in grades 6-12, regardless of the model used K-5 or the population being served. Content is delivered in the target language and in English.
For more information about Partial Immersion programs in North Carolina, including a list of DL/I programs using this model by district, charter, or independent and links to school websites, go to the Partial Immersion Programs page at
Group native speakers of English with native speakers of the target language. The mix is approximately 50% of each group. Content is delivered in the target language and in English.
For more information about Two-Way programs in North Carolina, including a list of DL/I programs using this model by district, charter, or independent and links to school websites, go to the Two-Way Programs page at
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